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The world's best recognized gearbox

After several years of strong promotion, the market share of dual-clutch gearboxes is now close to the peak, especially in the autonomous car market. Various cars equipped with DCT gearboxes are put on the market like dumplings, most of which are reliable and quality. Feelings are not flattering, especially dry double clutch, poor heat dissipation, strong setback, and obvious thermal attenuation, which directly affect the ride experience and maintenance cost of the owner.

However, in the middle and high-end car field, in addition to Audi, other brands are mainly based on traditional planetary gear transmissions, the technology is more mature, the shifting logic is clearer, and it is more adaptable to the complex vehicle environment. With the continuous innovation of technology, this issue of Xiaobian will take you to understand the gearboxes of some domestically produced vehicles that are both mature and reliable.

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ZF 8AT
Involved models: Haval H8, Haval H9

ZF (we are generally referred to as “ZF”) is an important supplier of auto parts in Germany. In 2017, the world's top 500 companies ranked 263. The most famous is the production of gearboxes, including the vertical 8AT for BMW/Audi, and the JAT, Land Rover and Honda's horizontal 9AT, which is a household name. In 2015, through the completion of the acquisition of TRW, the company became the world's auto parts giant.

It also includes various clutch modules, coupling modules for hybrid systems, and power take-offs, torque converters, etc. for various large-scale factory machinery, meaning that as long as power transmission and speed control are involved, Fudu is very influential.

ZF is generally only used by BMW Audi's high-end cars, but with the expansion of domestic factories, plus luxury car companies are gradually starting to smash their gearboxes, the balance of supply and demand is tilted, so some domestic cars have begun to apply. ZF's famous vertical 8AT, the most typical is the Haval H8/H9.

Needless to say, the dynamic experience, in addition to high fuel consumption, other aspects of performance are very good, gear switching is not black. In fact, Harvard's purchase of this gearbox from ZF is also helpless. The dual clutch developed by BorgWarner and the double clutch purchased from Getrag are both horizontal and suitable for front-mounted front-drive family cars, but The H8 and H9 are models of the engine's vertical position, which can't be used at all, so even if the cost is high, it can only be hard on the scalp. Who makes the H8/H9 a "facade"?

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Aisin Seiki 6AT/8AT
Involved models: Geely Star, Changan CS85

Regarding Aisin, the most familiar ones should be the horizontal 6AT gearbox widely used in Japanese, French, German, and autonomous vehicles. Although Volkswagen has its own DSG, some models still have to hold Aisin 6AT. thigh. As a component supplier to Toyota Holdings, Aisin Seiki itself can rank 324th among the world's top 500 companies in 2017. In addition to the 6AT that we are familiar with, most of the CVTs that are widely used in Japanese cars have Aisin parts. In addition, Camry's horizontal 8AT, Crown's vertical 8AT, and Prado's vertical 6AT are also works of Aisin. .

In recent years, independent brands have begun to lick their own high-end cars. The Geely and Great Wall dual-clutch gearboxes used by Lectra and WEY are developed with Volvo and BorgWarner, respectively. The Changan CS85 directly purchases the 8AT of the Aisin economy, which is the one on the Toyota Camry.

The Changan CS85 is equipped with the Blue Whale 2.0T engine. It is the latest development of Changan's fist products. It is equipped with Aisin 8AT gearbox, plus the weight of 1.7t. It is fast, shifting sensitive and high-speed power reserve, especially In sports mode, the dynamic experience is not lost to the same level of joint venture vehicles.

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Hyundai Kia 6AT (Mobis / Pivota)
Involved models: BYD Don, Hyundai Kia

MOBIS mainly supplies parts for Hyundai Kia's automotive products. To be precise, MOBIS is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hyundai Kia Group. As the biggest reliance on Korean cars, MOBIS also has near Magna. The breadth of business, which is a key factor for the Korean car to go global, is ranked 323 in the world's top 500 companies in 2017, one higher than Japan's Aisin Seiki.

Speaking of 6AT, everyone who first thinks of the word of mouth is Aisin, which has a bad reputation. SAIC GM is the key object. The 6AT of the Korean car is relatively weak. In fact, to say the dynamic experience and reliability, the 6AT of MOBIS/Pivotai is not lost to the former, the home car of about 100,000, the leader, K3 The driving experience of the 1.6L+6AT powertrain is very good, at least better than the GM and Ford three-cylinder and dual clutch. As for BYD, the low-end cars are self-driving dual clutches. Only the flagship car Tang (fuel version) uses 2.0T+6AT, and its dynamic feeling is indeed stronger than the old S7.

Maintenance method:
More and more cars are equipped with automatic transmissions. With the automatic gearbox, people can drive the car between one foot and one foot brake, which is very easy. If the owner ignores the maintenance of the automatic transmission, the delicate automatic transmission is prone to failure.
The most easily overlooked by the owner is the correct selection and replacement of the automatic transmission oil on time. In addition to the usual correct driving, the key to maintenance is to "change the oil" correctly. It is important to note that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specified by the manufacturer must be used, otherwise the automatic transmission will be subject to abnormal wear. Replacing the automatic transmission oil cannot be done at a roadside shop or a car beauty shop because this operation is very strict. There are two series of automatic transmissions in the world, using two series of standard automatic transmission oils, which cannot be interchanged and mixed, otherwise the automatic transmission will be damaged. Therefore, to replace the automatic transmission oil, the owner must go to a special maintenance factory or a professional automatic transmission repair shop.
Under normal circumstances, the automatic transmission car should be cleaned and maintained once every 20,000 km to 25,000 km, or when the gearbox slips, the water temperature is high, the shift is slow, and the system leaks and cleans.

Precautions:
1. Master the cycle of replacing the automatic transmission oil.
The internal control mechanism of the automatic transmission is very precise, and the clearance is small, so most of the automatic transmissions have a oil change interval of two years or 40 to 60,000 kilometers. In the normal use process, the operating temperature of the transmission oil is generally around 120 degrees Celsius, so the quality of the oil is very high and must be kept clean. Secondly, after the transmission oil has been used for a long time, it will produce oil stains, which may form sludge, which will increase the wear of the friction plates and various components, and also affect the system oil pressure, which will affect the power transmission. Third, the sludge in the dirty oil will cause the movement of the valve body in each valve body to be unsatisfactory, and the oil pressure control is affected, thereby causing an abnormality in the automatic transmission. Always check.
2. Replace the transmission oil properly.
The better oil change method is dynamic oil change. The special gearbox cleaning equipment is used. During the operation of the gearbox, the old oil is fully circulated, and the new gearbox oil is added after the discharge, so that the oil change rate is as high as possible. More than 90, to ensure a good oil change.
3. Whether the automatic transmission oil level is normal.
The automatic transmission oil inspection method is different from the engine oil. The engine oil is checked in the cold state, and the transmission oil needs to preheat the oil to about 50 °C, and then the gear lever stays in each gear for 2 seconds. After being placed in the parking gear, the normal oil level of the dipstick should be between the highest and lowest lines. If it is not enough, the same quality oil should be added in time.

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The gearbox mainly refers to the gearbox of the car. It is divided into manual and automatic. The manual gearbox is mainly composed of gears and shafts. The gear shifting torque is generated by different gear combinations. The automatic gearbox AT is changed by hydraulic force. Torque, planetary gear, hydraulic variable pitch system and hydraulic control system. The variable speed torque is achieved by means of hydraulic transmission and gear combination.

The gearbox is a very important part of the vehicle, which can change the gear ratio and increase the torque and speed of the drive wheel. With the development of modern technology, the gearbox has also been upgraded. From the original manual transmission to the now continuously variable transmission, from no synchronizer to having a synchronizer, the control is more and more convenient. At present, diesel engines are widely used in construction machinery, and the range of torque and speed change is small, which cannot meet the requirements of traction force and running speed of vehicles under various working conditions. Gearboxes are needed to solve this contradiction. The performance of the gearbox is the key to measuring the dynamics, economy and drivability of construction machinery. The current shifting systems mainly include: mechanical transmission, hydraulic transmission, and hydrostatic transmission. The gearbox has manual shifting and power shifting, and the structure is fixed-axis and planetary.

Features:
(1) Change the transmission ratio, expand the range of variation of the drive wheel torque and speed to adapt to the constantly changing driving conditions, and at the same time make the engine work under favorable conditions of high power and low fuel consumption;
(2) The vehicle can be driven backwards while the engine rotates in the same direction;
(3) Using neutral gear, interrupting power transmission, enabling the engine to start, shift, and facilitate transmission shifting or power output.
(4) The transmission is composed of a shifting transmission mechanism and an operating mechanism, and a power take-off can be added when necessary. There are two ways to classify: according to the change of the transmission ratio and the difference of the manipulation mode.

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working principle:
The manual transmission consists mainly of gears and shafts, which produce variable speed torque through different gear combinations. The automatic transmission AT is composed of a hydraulic torque converter, planetary gears and hydraulic control system, through hydraulic transmission and gear combination. To achieve the variable speed torque.
Among them, the hydraulic torque converter is the most characteristic component of AT. It consists of components such as pump wheel, turbine and guide wheel, and directly inputs the engine power transmission torque and separation. The pump wheel and the turbine are a pair of working combinations. They are like two fans placed opposite each other. The wind blown by one active fan will drive the blades of the other passive fan to rotate. The flowing air—the wind becomes the medium of kinetic energy transmission. .
If liquid is used instead of air as the medium for transmitting kinetic energy, the pump wheel will rotate the turbine through the liquid, and then a guide wheel is added between the pump wheel and the turbine to improve the efficiency of liquid transfer. Because the torque converter's automatic variable torque range is not large enough and the efficiency is low.

classification:
The gearbox has roughly the manual transmission, the ordinary automatic transmission/normal automatic transmission with the hand-integrated, the CVT continuously variable transmission/CVT geared gearbox, the dual clutch transmission, the serial transmission and the like.

Divided by transmission ratio
(1) Stepped transmission: The stepped transmission is the most widely used one. It uses gear drives and has several fixed ratios. There are two types of axial fixed transmissions (ordinary transmissions) and axial rotary transmissions (planetary transmissions), depending on the type of train used. The transmission ratios of passenger cars and light and medium truck transmissions usually have 3-5 forward gears and one reverse gear, and in the compound transmissions for heavy trucks, there are more gears. The so-called transmission number refers to the number of forward gears.
(2) Stepless transmission: The transmission ratio of the stepless transmission can be changed in an infinite number of stages within a certain range of values. Commonly, there are two types of electric type and hydraulic type (moving liquid type). The variable speed transmission component of the electric continuously variable transmission is a DC series motor. In addition to the application on the trolley bus, it is also widely used in the transmission system of the super heavy duty dump truck. The transmission component of the hydrodynamic continuously variable transmission is a torque converter.

The continuously variable transmission is a kind of automatic transmission, but it can overcome the shortcomings of "sudden shifting", slow throttle response, and high fuel consumption of the conventional automatic transmission. It consists of two sets of shifting discs and a belt. Therefore, it is simpler in structure and smaller in size than the conventional automatic transmission. In addition, it can freely change the transmission ratio, thus achieving full-speed stepless shifting, so that the car's speed changes smoothly, without the "ton" feeling of the traditional transmission shifting.
In the transmission system, the traditional gear is replaced by a pair of pulleys and a steel belt. Each pulley is actually a V-shaped structure composed of two discs. The engine shaft is connected to a small pulley and is driven by a steel belt. pulley. The mysterious machine is on this special pulley: the transmission pulley structure of the CVT is rather strange, and it is divided into left and right halves of the activity, which can be relatively close or separated. The cone can be tightened or opened under the action of hydraulic thrust, and the steel chain is extruded to adjust the width of the V-groove. When the cone-shaped disc is moved inwardly and tightly, the steel sheet chain moves in a direction other than the center of the circle (centrifugal direction) under the pressing of the cone disc, and instead moves inward toward the center of the circle. In this way, the diameter of the disk driven by the steel chain chain increases, and the transmission ratio changes.

(3) Integrated transmission: The integrated transmission is a hydraulic mechanical transmission consisting of a torque converter and a gear-type stepped transmission. The transmission ratio can be several intermittent ranges between the maximum and minimum values. There are no changes in the internals and there are more applications.

By manual and automatic division
(1) manual transmission
The manual transmission, also called the manual gear, can change the gear meshing position in the transmission by changing the gear shifting position by hand, and change the gear ratio to achieve the purpose of shifting. When the clutch is pressed, the shift lever can be adjusted. If the driver is skilled, the car with the manual transmission is faster than the automatic transmission when it is accelerating and overtaking, and it is also fuel efficient.
The AMT gearbox is a type of manual gearbox. It has the advantages of fuel-saving and low price. The disadvantage is that the application model is few and the technology is not mature enough. If the "hands-on-one" is to make the ordinary automatic transmission have the feeling of manual gear, then the AMT gearbox is just the opposite. It is based on the manual gearbox, and the overall structure remains unchanged by changing the shifting manipulating part. In the case of an automatic control system to achieve automatic shifting, it is like a robot to complete the two actions of operating the clutch and gear selection. Because it is essentially a manual transmission, AMT also inherits the advantages of manual transmission in terms of fuel economy. During the driving process, the AMT's sense of frustration due to gear changes still exists.
(2) Automatic transmission
The automatic transmission uses a planetary gear mechanism for shifting, and it can automatically shift the speed according to the degree of the accelerator pedal and the change of the vehicle speed. The driver only needs to operate the accelerator pedal to control the speed.
In general, there are several types of automatic transmissions commonly used in automobiles: hydraulic automatic transmissions, hydraulic transmission automatic transmissions, electric transmission automatic transmissions, stepped mechanical automatic transmissions, and stepless mechanical automatic transmissions. Among them, the most common is the hydraulic automatic transmission. The hydraulic automatic transmission is mainly composed of a hydraulically controlled gear shifting system, and mainly includes an automatic clutch and an automatic transmission. It automatically shifts gears based on changes in throttle opening and speed. A continuously variable transmission is a type of automatic transmission.

Divided by manipulation
(1) Forced-controlled transmission: The forced-actuated transmission is operated by the driver directly by shifting the shift lever.
(2) Automatically operated transmission: The transmission ratio selection and shifting of the automatic steering transmission is automatic, so-called "automatic". It refers to the transformation of each gear of the mechanical transmission by means of a signal system reflecting the engine load and the vehicle speed to control the actuators of the shifting system. The driver only needs to operate the accelerator pedal to control the speed of the vehicle.
(3) Semi-automatically operated transmission: There are two types of semi-automatic transmissions: one is the automatic operation of several gears commonly used, the other gears are operated by the driver; the other is pre-selection, that is, the driver pre-use The selected position of the button, when the clutch pedal is depressed or the accelerator pedal is released, an electromagnetic device or hydraulic device is turned on for shifting.

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