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Characteristics and application of DC motor

Characteristics and application of dc motor

A direct current machine is a rotating electrical machine that converts DC electrical energy into mechanical energy (DC motor) or converts mechanical energy into DC electrical energy (DC generator). Characteristics and application of dc motor.It is a motor that converts DC power and mechanical energy to each other. When it is used as a motor, it is a DC motor that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy; when the generator is running, it is a DC generator that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Characteristics and application of dc motor

Composition
The structure of the DC motor should consist of two parts: the stator and the rotor. The part of the DC motor that is stationary during operation is called the stator. The main function of the stator is to generate a magnetic field. It consists of a base, a main pole, a commutating pole, an end cover, a bearing and a brush device. The part that rotates during operation is called the rotor. Its main function is to generate electromagnetic torque and induced electromotive force. It is the hub of DC motor for energy conversion, so it is usually called armature. It is changed by the shaft, armature core, armature winding, and It consists of a transmitter and a fan.Characteristics and application of dc motor

Characteristics and application of dc motor

stator. Characteristics and application of dc motor
(1) main magnetic pole
The role of the main magnetic pole is to create an air gap magnetic field. The main magnetic pole is composed of a main magnetic pole core and a field winding. The iron core is generally formed by laminating and crimping a silicon steel plate with a thickness of 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm, and is divided into two parts, a pole body and a pole piece. The part of the upper set of the field winding is called a pole body, and the part which is widened below is called a pole. The boots, the pole boots are wider than the pole, which can adjust the distribution of the magnetic field in the air gap and facilitate the fixing of the field winding. The field winding is wound with an insulated copper wire and is placed on the main pole core. Characteristics and application of dc motor.The entire main magnetic pole is fixed to the base by screws.
(2) commutating pole
The function of the commutating pole is to improve the commutation and reduce the reversing spark that may be generated between the brush and the commutator during the running of the motor, generally between two adjacent main poles, by the commutating pole core and the commutation The pole winding is composed. The commutating pole winding is wound with an insulated wire and is placed on the commutating pole core, and the number of commutating poles is equal to the main magnetic pole.

Characteristics and application of dc motor
(3) base
The outer casing of the motor stator is called the base. Characteristics and application of dc motor.There are two functions for the base:
One is to fix the main magnetic pole, the commutating pole and the end cap, and to support and fix the whole motor;
Second, the base itself is also a part of the magnetic circuit, thereby forming a magnetic path between the magnetic poles, and a portion through which the magnetic flux passes is called a yoke. In order to ensure sufficient mechanical strength and good magnetic permeability of the machine base, it is generally made of steel or welded by steel plates.
(4) Brush device
The brush device is used to introduce or extract DC voltage and DC current. Characteristics and application of dc motor.The brush device is composed of a brush, a brush holder, a brush rod and a brush holder. The brush is placed in the brush holder and pressed by the spring to make a good sliding contact between the brush and the commutator. The brush holder is fixed on the brush rod, and the brush rod is mounted on the circular brush holder, and mutual Must be insulated between. The brush rod seat is mounted on the end cover or the inner cover of the bearing, and the circumferential position can be adjusted, and then fixed after being adjusted.

Characteristics and application of dc motor

Rotor
(1) Armature core
Characteristics and application of dc motor.The armature core is the main part of the main magnetic circuit and is used to embed the discharge pivot winding.
Generally, the armature core is formed by laminating punches made of 0.5 mm thick silicon steel sheets to reduce eddy current loss and hysteresis loss generated in the armature core during motor operation. The stacked cores are fixed to the rotating shaft or the rotor bracket.Characteristics and application of dc motor. The outer circumference of the core is provided with an armature slot, and the discharge pivot winding is embedded in the slot.
(2) armature winding
The role of the armature winding is to generate electromagnetic torque and induced electromotive force, which is a key component of the DC motor for energy conversion, so it is called the armature. It is made up of a number of coils (hereinafter referred to as components) connected according to a certain rule. The coil is wound with high-strength enameled wire or glass-coated flat copper wire. The coil sides of different coils are embedded in the armature slot in two layers, the coil and The insulation between the cores and between the upper and lower coil sides must be properly insulated. In order to prevent the centrifugal force from pulling out the edge of the coil, the notch is fixed by the wedge. Characteristics and application of dc motor. The terminating portion of the coil extending beyond the slot is tied with a thermosetting, non-woven glass ribbon.
(3) commutator
In the DC motor, the commutator is equipped with a brush, which can convert the external DC power into an alternating current in the armature coil, so that the direction of the electromagnetic torque is constant; in the DC generator, the commutator is equipped with The brush can convert the alternating electromotive force induced in the armature coil into a direct current electromotive force drawn from the positive and negative brushes. The commutator is a cylinder composed of a plurality of commutator segments, and the commutator segments are insulated by mica plates.
(4) shaft
The rotating shaft plays a supporting role for the rotation of the rotor, and requires a certain mechanical strength and rigidity, and is generally processed by round steel.

 

Main classification
DC generator. Characteristics and application of dc motor
A direct current generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into direct current electrical energy. It is mainly used as a DC motor for DC motors, electrolysis, electroplating, electrosmelting, charging, and excitation power of alternators. Although AC power is used to convert AC power to DC power where DC power is required, AC power supply cannot completely replace DC generators in terms of performance.

 

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